Neonatal gestational pemphigoid
neonatal gestational pemphigoid (neonatal pemphigoid gestationis) is a short-lived Autoimmune skin disease arising as a result of transplacental transmission to the neonate of maternal antibodies. It is characterized by blister formation on the Skin and the mucous membranes mediated by auto-antibodies to the hemidesmosome component BP180.
Additional Informationneonatal gestational pemphigoid (pemphigoid gestationis) occurs in about 3% of cases of maternal gestational pemphigoid. The neonate has Blisters on the skin. Maternal antibodies directed against the hemidesmosome component BP1 80/BPAg2/collagen XVII (present in neonatal, maternal and amnion placentae basement membrane zone) cross the placenta and bind to neonatal skin causing subepidermal blistering. These antibodies also cause Chronic placental inflammation with intrauterine Growth retardation. Diagnosis is based on the Clinical setting but indirect and direct immunofluorescence on cord Blood and neonatal skin will show C3 or IgG at the basement membrane zone. Usually treatment with topical Steroids is sufficient and the condition resolves within four weeks as the maternal antibodies are catabolised.